Der zuverlässige Rückruf

Wenn Wauwi krank ist
16. Dezember 2015
Nala’s Silvester
2. Januar 2016

Der zuverlässige Rückruf

27.12.2015

Um seinen Hund in den Freilauf übergeben zu können ist es unumgänglich vorher einen sicheren Rückruf aufgebaut zu haben. Als Hundehalter stehen wir in der Pflicht, unseren Hund auch ohne Leine sicher kontrollieren zu können und uns so zu verhalten, dass niemand durch das Verhalten des eigenes Hundes eingeschränkt oder belästigt wird. Hiermit sind nicht nur Menschen, sondern auch andere (Beute-)Tiere gemeint.

Nun ist der Aufbau des Rückrufsignals alles andere als einfach, da das Training zum einen viel Zeit in Anspruch nimmt und einiges an Durchhaltevermögen und Konsequenz seitens des Halters erfordert. Zum anderen gibt es eine ganze Reihe an Fehlern, die bei der Durchführung der Übung vom Menschen ausgehen können. Um diesen Fehlern vorzubeugen und auch weil ich den Rückruf sehr wichtig finde, möchte ich den Aufbau des Rückruftrainings hier detailliert beschreiben.

Update vom 05.05.2017: in diesem Blogbeitrag findet ihre alle FAQs rund um das Thema Rückruftraining 🙂

Bedeutung

Was bedeutet der Rückruf überhaupt? Für mich bedeutet das, dass mein Hund alles stehen und liegen lässt und ohne Umwege zu mir kommt, sobald ich das Rückrufsignal ausspreche. Später haben wir noch eingeführt, dass er sich direkt neben uns setzen soll. Auf jeden Fall darf er erst wieder etwas anderes machen, sobald er dafür ein Signal zur Freigabe von uns erhalten hat.

Signal

Als Signal eignen sich keine Wörter, die wir im Alltag verwenden. Also nicht „hier“ oder „komm“ und auch kein Wort, das uns zwischendurch herausrutschen könnte. Hier bietet sich der ausländische Wortschatz an. „Back“, „Turn“, „Dalli“, „Tschaka“ oder „Aqui“ zum Beispiel. Wir haben uns für „Avanti“ entschieden.

Anwendung

Der Rückruf dient dazu, den Hund in schwierigen Situationen zuverlässig abzurufen. Das Signal sollte also nicht zu oft, also nicht zehn mal während eines Spaziergangs, angewendet werden. Es soll noch etwas besonderes bleiben, für das sich der Hund gerne bemüht und andere Sachen dafür liegen lässt. Der Rückruf ist kein Ersatz für „Hier“ oder „Komm“.

Belohnung

Als Belohnung sollte ein Leckerlie verwendet werden, welches dein Hund unheimlich gerne frisst, auf das ihr im Alltag aber zukünftig verzichten könnt. Denn dieses Leckerlie darf ab jetzt nur noch im Zusammenhang mit dem Rückrufsignal auftauchen. Wir haben uns für Leberwurst entschieden. Zum einen findet Nala das super lecker und zum anderen eignet sich die Konsistenz sehr gut, um es in die dafür vorgesehene Dose zu füllen.

Der Jackpot

Der Jackpot

Der Jackpot

Diese Dose ist nämlich der „Jackpot“. Die Dose wurde uns von der Hundeschule so empfohlen. Man bekommt sie in Apotheken, da üblicherwiese sonst Salben und Cremes in dieses Döschen gefüllt werden. Diese Dose ist einmalig und hatte Nala bis dahin auch noch nie gesehen, eignet sich also perfekt. Eine gekaufte Tube Leberwurst aus dem Tierladen eignet sich auch. Das setzt aber voraus, dass dein Hund sie vorher noch nie gesehen hat und auch noch nicht darüber belohnt wurde.

Vorbereitung

Nun zur Vorbereitung der Übung. Der Jackpot liegt bereit, ein Wortsignal wurde gewählt. Super! Dann kommt nun endlich der Hund ins Spiel 😉 .

1. Schritt – Den Hund anfixen: Nachdem wir zuhause die Leberwurst in die Jackpot-Dose gefüllt hatten (Nala durfte dabei zuschauen), haben wir sie daran riechen lassen (wirklich nur riechen!) und sie ganz stark auf die Dose angefixt: „Wow, toll! Lecker! Guck mal!“ und so weiter. Dann wird die Dose auf einen Schrank gestellt, so dass sie sie sehen aber nicht erreichen konnte. Fies, ich weiß 😉 . Aber es hat die Dose besonders und begehrenswert gemacht, sodass Nala sie unbedingt haben wollte. Nach ein paar Minuten haben wir die Dose kommentarlos entfernt und wieder zurück in den Kühlschrank gestellt. Das ganze Prozedere haben wir 2 – 3 Mal am Tag an drei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen durchgeführt.

2. Schritt – Konditionieren: Am vierten Tag bekommt der Hund dann endlich mal etwas ab von der leckeren Leberwurst aus dem tollen Jackpot. Zuerst lässt man den Hund wieder schnuppern. Dann führt man den Hund links neben sich ins Sitz (für alle, die ihren Hund rechts führen dann dementsprechend auch nach rechts). Hier wird das Wort jetzt mit der Belohnung verknüpft. Sitzt der Hund neben dir, gibst du dein Signal, „Avanti“, und sofort gibt es die „Druckbetankung“, wie unser Trainer immer gesagt hat. Also eine richtig große Portion aus der Jackpot-Dose. Das wird wieder 2 – 3 Mal wiederholt und der Jackpot anschließend wieder weggestellt. Und wie im ersten Schritt wiederholt man dieses Vorgehen an drei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen.

Durchführung

Achtung: Von nun an darf der Hund nicht mehr in den Freilauf übergeben werden! Er soll nicht die Möglichkeit bekommen wegzulaufen. Wenn du auf den Freilauf nicht verzichten magst, dann benutze besser eine Schleppleine.

Jetzt kommen wir der eigentlichen Übung schon etwas näher. Wir benötigen im besten Fall zwei Personen. Alleine sollte diese Übung aber auch machbar sein. Wir trainieren jetzt dort, wo wir viel Platz haben und in einer reizarmen Umgebung, die der Hund schon kennt. Eine Person stellt sich gemeinsam mit dem Hund auf. Sie sorgt dafür, dass der Hund nicht wegläuft und hält ihn bei Bedarf zurück. Bist du bei der Übung alleine, dann lass deinen Hund sitzen und bleiben. Die andere Person zeigt dem Hund den Jackpot und entfernt sich dann kommentarlos 20 Schritte zurück. Beide Parteien stehen sich jetzt ruhig gegenüber. Du wartest dann ein paar Sekunden und rufst dann laut und deutlich das Wort für deinen Rückruf „Avanti“. Läuft dein Hund los, dann lobst du ihn sofort, schlägst mit dem Händen auf die Beine, sprichst in Babystimme, was auch immer 😉 . Hauptsache dein Hund hat verstanden, dass es ganz, ganz toll von ihm war, dass er gerade zu dir gelaufen ist. Und als i-Tüpfelchen der ganzen Aktion bekommt er natürlich sofort die Belohnung aus dem Jackpot. Daher sollte der Jackpot die ganze Zeit über in der Hand gehalten werden. Denn hier ist es noch wichtig, dass die Belohnung so schnell wie möglich auf das Signal folgt, sodass dein Hund den Zusammenhang so gut und so schnell wie möglich versteht.

Steigerung

Diese Übung kann 2 – 3 Mal hintereinander wiederholt und auch mehrmals am Tag geübt werden. Wenn die Übung nach ein paar Tagen zuverlässig klappt, kann die Umgebung gewechselt und in reizstärkerer Umgebung trainiert werden. Wichtig ist, dass lieber kleine Steigerungen vorgenommen werden, als zu große Sprünge.

1. Schritt – Schleppleine: Funktioniert diese Übung zuverlässig in unterschiedlichen Umgebungen, kann nun an der Schleppleine trainiert werden. Ich hoffe, es versteht sich von selbst, dass der Hund seit Beginn der Einübung des Rückrufsignals nicht mehr ohne Leine laufen gelassen wurde. Ab jetzt gibt es nur noch die Schleppleine. Und ich kann euch versprechen: dieser Schritt dauert laaaaaaange! Bis hierhin hat das Training noch sehr viel Spaß gemacht, man konnte schnell Fortschritte erkennen, die Bindung zwischen Hund und Halter hat sich durch die positiven Erfahrungen gefestigt. Aber jetzt wird es schwer und es heißt: nicht aufgeben! Wir haben im Training mit einer 10m-Schleppleine gearbeitet. Diese Länge kann ich auch nur empfehlen, da ich den Radius für den Anfang für überschaubar halte und mein Hund trotzdem genug Freilauf hat. Während des Spaziergangs mit der Schleppleine suchst du dir zu Anfang natürlich wieder leichtere Wege aus. Jetzt wird nämlich zum ersten Mal der Rückruf in Aktion geübt. Versuche eine Situation zu finden, in der dich dein Hund nicht gerade anschaut, aber auch nicht etwas interessantes beschnuppert. Am besten rufst du dein Signalwort, wenn dein Hund einfach geradeaus läuft und ansonsten nichts interessantes im Blick hat. Reagiert er auf das Wort und läuft sofort zu dir? Klasse! Dann hat die Verknüpfung schon mal super geklappt. Lobe deinen Hund jetzt ganz doll und füttere ihn zur Belohnung sofort aus dem Jackpot. Auch hier gilt wieder: ist diese Situation zuverlässig abrufbar, kann der Schwierigkeitsgrad erhöht werden. Merkst du, dass die Situation vielleicht doch noch zu schwierig ist, übst du einfach so lange weiter, bis die vorherige Stufe zuverlässig abrufbar ist und steigerst dich erst danach wieder.

2. Schritt – Freilauf: Zwischen dem letzten und diesem Schritt liegen eigentlich noch eintausend weitere Schritte und sehr viel Zeit. Da die Entwicklung von Hund zu Hund unterschiedlich ist und auch davon abhängt, wie fleißig man trainiert, möchte ich keine allgemeinen weiteren Schritte erläutern. Ich kann nur so viel sagen, dass die Schleppleine erst entfernt werden kann, wenn du dir sehr sicher bist, dass dein Hund auch im Freilauf ohne Leine zuverlässig hört und auf den Rückruf reagiert. Ist das noch nicht der Fall, ist es für den Trainingsablauf besser, erst mal wieder mit der Schleppleine zu arbeiten. Wir haben es so gehandhabt, dass wir nach und nach jeweils einen Meter der Leine abgeschnitten haben, bis nur noch drei bis vier Meter übrig blieben (diese Vorgehensweise hängt aber auch mit dem „Stopp“-Signal zusammen). So gewöhnt man sich selbst daran, dass man nicht mehr oder nur noch bedingt über die Leine ins Geschehen eingreifen kann. Denn Ziel ist es ja, den Hund über die Stimme zu lenken und nicht über die eigene Körperkraft. Außerdem lohnt sich der schleichende Übergang für den Hund. Der kann nämlich anhand des Gewichtes der Leine ganz gut einschätzen, ob er denn jetzt an der Leine läuft oder nicht. Unsere Hundis sind ja nicht blöd 😉 . Wenn man das Gewicht der Leine also nach und nach reduziert, ist der Übergang von Leine zu keine-Leine nicht so abrupt.
Bis Nala sicher und zuverlässig ohne Schleppleine abrufbar war, hat es ungefähr zwei Monate gedauert. Danach wurde nur noch verfeinert. Wir haben aber auch wirklich jeden Tag geübt. Ich kann euch nur sagen: es hat sich wirklich gelohnt!

Was tun, wenn mein Hund nicht reagiert?

Was mach ich denn, wenn mein Hund mal nicht auf den Rückruf reagiert? Hier heißt es Ruhe bewaren und einfach weiter gehen. Den Hund bitte nicht auf anderem Wege zu sich rufen. Nicht über den Namen und auch das Rückrufsignal nicht sofort wieder verwenden. In dieser Situation ist es am besten, man tut so, als wäre nichts gewesen und wiederholt den Rückruf ein paar Minuten später in einer leichteren Situation. Wichtig ist, dass die Übung positiv beendet wird und dein Hund die Übung positiv in Erinnerung behält.

Fehler

Als Mensch können wir beim Einüben des Rückrufsignals eine ganze Menge Fehler machen! Das ist natürlich normal, jeder macht mal Fehler. Auf einige möchte ich jedoch jetzt schon vorbeugend hinweisen, damit sie hoffentlich vermieden werden können.

Sich bewusst machen, was man vom Hund erwartet: Man sollte sich immer im Klaren sein, was man in diesem Moment vom Hund erwartet und was es zur Folge hat, wenn er das gewünschte Verhalten nicht zeigt. Das Signal sollte ausschließlich in Situationen gegeben werden, in denen das folgende Verhalten auch gewünscht ist und der Hund auch die Möglichkeit hat, es korrekt auszuführen. Ein ständiges Rufen des Hundes ist nicht sinnvoll und sollte vemieden werden.

Andere Signale verwenden: Sollte der Hund nicht sofort auf das Rückrufsignal hören, bitte keine anderen Signale verwenden. Weder akustische noch taktile Signale sollten hier eingeführt werden. Besonders das Eingreifen in die Schleppleine sollte auf jeden Fall vermieden werden. Wir arbeiten mit unserer Körpersprache und akustischen Signalen und greifen nicht durch unsere Überlegenheit durch Körperkraft ein.

In Gefahrensituationen panisch werden: Das Rückrufsignal ist genau für solche Situationen gedacht, in denen der Hund zuverlässig hören muss, beispielsweise in den Situationen, von denen Gefahr ausgeht (ein plötzlich vorbeifahrendes Auto zum Beispiel). Verändern wir unsere Stimmlage, nimmt auch unser Hund das wahr. Hier heißt es Ruhe bewaren und das Rückrufsignal genauso aussprechen wie immer.

Andere optische oder taktile Reize werden Teil des Kommandos: Das darf auf keinen Fall passieren. In Situationen, in denen wir unseren Hund abrufen, hat der Hund in den meisten Fällen keinen Blickkontakt. Er wird dann mit interessanteren Dingen beschäftigt sein. Versteht der Hund das Wortsignal aber nur in Kombination mit einem anderen, wie beispielsweise winken, dann wird er auch nur auf die Kombination dieser beiden Signale hören. Das Winken kann er aber gar nicht wahrnehmen, da er ja keinen Blickkontakt zum Halter hält. Ergo: Hund kommt nicht.

Das Rückrufsignal nur in Gefahrensituationen geben: Ja, genau hierfür ist das Signal zwar eigentlich gedacht. Wenn es jedoch nur in Gefahrensituationen (Jogger, anderer Hund) gegeben wird, dann wird es zum Warnsignal und später zum Angriffsignal, beziehungsweise Auslöser für große Erregung. Besser ist, das Signal wird in den alltäglichen Spaziergang integriert und in einfachen, unkritischen und auch in schweren Situationen geübt.

Unterscheidung von Rückrufsignal und „Komm“: Das Rückrufsignal muss deutlich vom üblichen „Komm“, „Hier“ usw. unterschieden werden. Es dient nicht als Ersatz. „Komm“ und „Hier“ können immer noch zum einfachen Rufen des Hundes verwendet werden. Lediglich beim Rückrufsignal muss unbedingt sicher gestellt werden, dass der Hund beim Rufen des Signals auch wirklich kommt.

Jackpotfütterung

Jackpotfütterung

Die Belohnung ist sehr wichtig!: Auch nach über einem Jahr belohnen wir Nala immer noch jedes Mal mit dem Jackpot für den Rückruf. Sie hat es verinnerlicht und es ist fast schon selbstverständlich, dass sie dann auch zu uns zurück kommt. Das sollte es aber nicht sein. Es erfordert jedes mal sehr viel Selbstbeherrschung vom Hund sich von der interessanten Stelle zu lösen und zum Herrchen zurückzukommen. Daher sollte auch später nie auf ein angemessenes Lob verzichtet werden. Es soll sich ja auch weiterhin lohnen, zum Halter zurück zu kommen.

Unsere Erfahrungen

Ich würde nicht so ausführlich und lang und breit über dieses Thema reden, wenn ich nicht selbst zu 100% davon überzeugt wäre. Wir haben das Training sehr konsequent durchgezogen und über Monate intensiv geübt und nun verfeinert. Nach über eineinhalb Jahren können wir behaupten, dass Nala durch den Rückruf in 95% aller Fälle abrufbar ist. Es passiert wirklich sehr selten, dass sie mal nicht kommt. Das ist aber schon ein sehr guter Wert und wir sind damit auch sehr zufrieden. Die Male, in denen sie dann nicht kommt, ist der Reiz einfach interessanter als wir mit dem tollen Jackpot-Leckerlie. Das kann passieren. Was ich mit Sicherheit sagen kann, ist dass diese Übung ein lebenslanges Lernen ist. Man muss immer dran bleiben und immer wieder üben. Da es aber eines der wichtigsten Kommandos im Zusammenleben mit Hunden ist und nicht nur die Sicherheit des Hundes, auch die Sicherheit anderer Beteiligten damit sicherstellt, bin ich der Meinung, dass sich jeder Hundehalter mit dem Thema auseinandersetzen sollte.

Ich hoffe, dass ich mit diesem ausführlichen und sehr langen Beitrag einige Fragen beantworten und einige Tipps geben konnte! Euch auf jeden Fall viel Spaß beim Üben – ich kann nur sagen: es lohnt sich! 🙂

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    Und belohnt ihr Nala nachwievor beim Rückrufsignal mit dem Leberwurst-Jackpot? Oder bekommt sie dafür „notfalls“ auch mal was anderes?
    Meinst du wir können dafür auch die Pfeife benutzen? Die kennt Nero noch nicht, habe aber eine gekauft, weil ich schon mal daran dachte, dass sie DAS Rückrufsignal werden könnte. Allerdings habe ich am Strand neulich auch eine Frau mit Pfeife gesehen. Nicht, dass er dann mal zu jemand anderen läuft, der eine Pfeife benutzt.
    Würde mich über Antworten freuen!
    Viele Grüße 🙂

    • Kiki sagt:

      Dass wir anfangs die Schleppleine benutzt haben, hat zwei Gründe: zum einen haben wir ihr damit beigebracht im Freilauf einen Radius von 10 Metern einzuhalten (mittlerweile haben wir den Radius ausgedehnt, für den Anfang ist das aber eine überschaubarere Distanz) und zum anderen haben wir ihr damit das Signal „Stopp“ beigebracht. Hätte ich das Signal auch noch erläutert, wäre der Beitrag einfach viel zu umfangreich geworden. Im Prinzip ging es bei dem Stopp-Signal darum, immer „Stopp“ zu rufen, wenn der Hund sich 10 Meter entfernt hatte. Zu der Zeit hatten wir die Schleppleine noch in der Hand. Ja, die Schleppleine dient dazu, während des Trainings über die Leine eingreifen zu können. Das haben wir auch getan, aber nicht während des Rückrufs. Sind wir also mit ihr an der Schleppleine spazieren gegangen und sie war mehr als 10 Meter hinter uns, dann kann man sie natürlich über die Leine etwas ziehen und zum Mitkommen motivieren. Dafür und natürlich auch als Schutz vor dem Weglaufen (besonders bei Hunden mit höherem Jagdtrieb) ist die Schleppleine nötig.
      Auch heute belohnen wir Nala noch mit dem Leberwurst-Jackpot. Falls aber mal keine Leberwurst da ist, dann tut’s auch ein anderes tolles Leckerlie, wie Käse oder Fleischwurst oder eine ganze Hand voll Leckerlies. Das ist auch okay. Wichtig ist nur, dass die Belohnung immer etwas besonderes ist. Nur fürs Training ist es wichtig, dass es immer das gleiche Leckerlie ist, also dass es anfangs immer der Leberwurst-Jackpot bleibt.
      Im Prinzip könnt ihr für den Rückruf auch die Pfeife verwenden. Der Trainingsablauf ist dann genau der gleiche. Nur dass ihr nicht auf das Wort, sondern auf den Pfiff konditioniert. Den Nachteil hast du aber selbst schon gut erkannt 😉 Die Hundepfeifen hören sich fast alle gleich an. Und viele Hundeschulen trainieren mit einer Pfeife, was bedeutet, dass es viele Leute gibt, die diese auch benutzen. Die Chance, dass einem jemand entgegenkommt, der nach seinem Hund pfeift ist natürlich viel größer, als dass er das gleiche Wortsignal verwendet. Ein weiterer Nachteil ist: was macht man, wenn man mal die Pfeife vergessen hat? Dann ist der Hund nicht mehr abrufbar. Deshalb haben wir damals mit der Stimme trainiert.
      Ich hoffe, ich konnte dir helfen und etwas Licht ins Dunkle bringen 🙂
      Viele Grüße und einen schönen Abend, ihr beiden!

      • Jule und Nero sagt:

        Sorry, dass ich jetzt erst wieder antworte und danke für deine ausführliche Antwort!! 🙂 Ich hatte mir „damals“ auch den Jackpot in der Apotheke geholt, fand die Benutzung aber irgendwie umständlich 😀 Wir sind dann bei Fleischwurst geblieben. Wir haben dann, wie geplant, die Pfeife konditioniert. Ziemlich genauso, wie du es hier beschrieben hast und was soll ich sagen? Klappt 1A. Der „Komm-Pfiff“ ist wirklich eine Sache, auf die wir uns IMMER verlassen können. Nero rastet richtig aus, wenn er die Pfeife hört, total klasse…von Anfang an 😀 Er kommt dann sabbernd angerannt. Wir haben uns letztendlich doch für die Pfeife entschieden, weil wir dann doch öfter gelesen haben, dass die Hunde angeblich die Pfiffe unterscheiden können und die Pfeifen sowieso. Wir benutzen eine Acme und der Kommpfiff ist „kurz-lang“. Zu Anfang war es dann natürlich doch so, dass Nero irritiert durch die Gegend rannte, wenn er eine Pfeife hörte. Inzwischen hat er das aber ganz gut begriffen, wie sich „mein Pfiff“ anhört 🙂

      • Kiki sagt:

        Haha, das kann ich verstehen! :p Diese Jackpot-Dose ist echt nicht so mega praktisch 😉 Aber Fleischwurst tuts ja auch. Ist eigentlich eine echt gute Alternative. Wie schön, dass der Rückruf bei euch so toll funktioniert! Für den Freilauf ist das das A und O. Da seid ihr ja schön konsequent geblieben, toll! 🙂

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